India's Possible Potential and Limitations to Convert the US-Israel-Indo T3 triad to T11

Updated: May 26

Chitrika Grover,

Research Intern,

Internationalism Research.

As the democratic countries are collaborating to enhance participation, in order to improve 5G network connectivity within the prevailing tech area. A partnership among T3 countries would enable to deliver output from the strategic, economic and development perspective. The debate over increasing demand for access to the technology has arisen and shifts trend towards, creation of the next-generation technology, with high-speed network, low latency, and enhanced connectivity across different devices.[1] India aspires to make collective gains from enhanced 5G and prevent misuse, of data and information network by encouraging co-operation. T3 brought bright minds of the countries together, in the field of technology and innovation, i.e. Bengaluru, Tel Aviv, and Silicon Valley, which are the innovation centres on the countries.[2] The India- USA and Israel trilateral digital partnership is a step towards, planning the future, in 5G set the trend for the next evolution brought by the network. It aims is to prepare for an equal and secure platform, via an open network, so that each state can reap benefits of development through co-operation and prevent misuse or domination by one player.


The expansion of membership from T3 to T11 (India, Israel and USA plus Japan, Germany, the UK, France, Australia, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea) would give voice to participants, and allow them to discuss security and technical issues arising from using 5G network. The T11 collaboration centres around establishing an understanding among participating countries, for safe development i.e. without breaching the law, improve communication, secure common goals and enable to find a solution to common issues. In this new era where ‘Information’ and ‘data’ occupy a crucial role in organizing life, making work more efficient, it also creates the burden of managing security issues resulting from the exchange of information within the network. While, technology is the cornerstone for evolving practice within communication, exchange information and people to people exchange, however, it is the data generated from it and the connectivity from 5G which occupies central attention. These are some problem which may arise for India as it moves towards growth in the 5G connectivity.

Thus, co-operation among developed and developing countries, through government and companies will have to consider security concerns surrounding 5G implementation.[3] However, the collaboration between India, USA and Israel marks a beginning, within the telecommunication network.


Third, the need for collaboration in the new 5G spectrum comes in the wake of potential harm that India and other democracies are exposed to, especially by Chinese telecom. For instance, in wake of the anti-china factor has led to a shift from ‘Huwai’ and other Chinese technology which are although cheaper, yet pose significant security threat. Thus, for this reason, countries are abandoning Chinese technology and looking for an alternative, thus creates an opportunity for India and other like-minded countries looking for an opportunity to enter the 5G spectrum.

Thus, leading towards the formation of ‘D10’ club i.e. club of democratic countries or which may also be referred to as T10, may transform the nature of collaboration over of 5G usage. From a security perspective, it may shift the debate towards pro-democratic narrative in support, of values such as ‘Data Privacy’. Since China has brought the 5G debate and took the lead to develop it, the USA and other democracies played the role to change it into the security debate, by identifying security breach emerging from the use of 5G network. Thus, it encouraged digital partnership for developing the technology and to become stakeholder, to influence the rules that govern the new digital order is the next step.[4]

The 5G network although relatively new for India, as it’s still making headway to create and manage its own service and network. Since, India in pursuit of gaining 5G would be required to create data centres for storage, explore 5G based product, make design and indulge in manufacturing.[5] Using the network would enable India to make its own assessment, of where it stands, and which policies would work most favourably to correspond with actions to adapt the 5G, this becomes increasingly important after realizing that India cannot rely upon china, to pursue its foundational technology.


Fourth, for India to actively participate in a 5G network, it needs to work with other developing countries and collaborate to collectively resolve shared ‘security and technology issues’. Since, 5G use exposes the sovereignty of the country, by gaining access personal data. It generates fear of domination by China or any particular country, which would be ahead in this race to gain access to technology, for high-speed broadband speed, artificially intelligent, etc. The eminent fear of domination of by one country or worse, fear of not able to negotiate with countries, over network sharing which could incumbent to issues like information leak. Thus, balance and negotiation is necessary to prevent a monopoly by one state. Since sharing of the network leads to an exchange of crucial information about the user, the issue of data sovereignty and security, has potential to become a security concern. While India creates its 5G network, the security against the service provider is epitomized. India must strengthen its Cyber Security network, as 5G produces massive data, it demands information in an efforts to protect data, or to use it for its own economic growth. Since ‘Data’ is the new oil, and it has been extensively used, by creating network such as T10 would support against potential breach or conflict of interest among states.[6] Thus creating a shared responsibility for those engaged in the supply chain of providing 5G. Especially, mobile operators and other network providers to adopt and monitor system against emerging threats. India’s ability to create sort of a firewall of law and infrastructure is weak at this time, thus, India must build a network system to gain protection in order towards off its breech.


Fifth, as India is in a race to develop 5G, through collaboration with T-10. India’s domestic service provider finds ‘Reliance Jio’ to be the winner, as it runs ahead among other service providers in the telecommunication sector. These may help India to domestically reassess its pricing in pursuit to create a network, especially, with countries such as, South Korea, US, and the UK, which have low pricing. The TRAI (telecom regulatory authority of India) has paced a price of 492 crores per MHz – and an additional 100 MHz which creates an additional burden of 50,000 crores. This high pricing system in comparison to other countries like South Korea, Italy, Spain, Britain place incumbent on the growth of the telecom industries which are already reeling from financial challenges.[7]

Usage of internet network in India’s ensures widespread 5G adoption which can be fulfilled with increase localize use of smartphone and currently, it’s challenging for India to do so. The lack of infrastructure posed a challenge during the lockdown and it gave an insight into troubles that India may run into while making 5G fully operational. Internet access requires vast bandwidth, achieved through ‘fiberisation’ of the network for high speed, but India is still working on fully achieving it. Lastly, pricing has been a deterrent to India 5G growth as pricing India has been a struggle to find the right price. For this, the telecom requires government sector to incentivize in the 5G for a long term, and cooperate, support growth in the technological spectrum, incentives and invest, in technology and employment.[8]


The T11 countries, work together over creating a network to access 5G technology could give rise to debate, over security. In India, policymaking over IT has caught attention, especially in the recent time the discussion around tech policy, enforcing tighter norms and regulations. These policies would seek to transform data governance and give more control to the state to practice sovereignty over it. While ITI within India is still underway to decide on the rising concerns over data location, as it would seek to put a barrier on trade. India would have to resolve this issue while it expands the 5G network. As the shared telecommunication network exposes information of participating states, it creates concerns over security-related co-operation among the players which have already invested in India’s growth and development.

For example, as data become important, so does the law to regulate it, US’s CLOUD Act, which enables like-minded countries like India, access to data, in order to resolve cybercrime is an example of future policies.[9] Similarly, to this law in the domain of cybercrime, a data-sharing law could be useful, to enable sharing of information on service and create a common commitment to rule of law. However, India is still in process of developing its own Data law (2019) which aims to overcome the imbalance by creating its own rule of law over-taxation of digital device.


Ninthly, with rising demand for state of the art technology, has increased the state’s control in order to secure and protect its country’s security interest. It may require robust co-operation and participation between the public and private sector. For example, just like the EU is moving towards creating a sort of a date plan for all EU members a similar deal can be undertaken by T11 countries. This would allow India to take a new role and to enter the new phase of the information revolution.


The use of gadget which has IoT (Internet of Things) and AI (Artificial Intelligence), have become popular with the expansion of the 5G network. To support such a network would require infrastructure, for example, the creation of data storage system, to store user information.[10] India, however, lacks behind in areas, such as the creation of open access data centres, a unified data management network, network for storage, backup etc. They add up certain prerequisite, for smooth network service. The creation of 5G network would require the creation of infrastructure, to ensure efficiency, for instance, creation of DATA storage, which is required to store information arising from the use of multiple devices. The 5G debate on data sharing gave rise to concerns over whether to develop that technology locally or not, and the create scepticism over of sharing network.

9. Partnership with democracies in making technology

India’s participation in the global value chain aims to advance through its “Digital India” plan, it may receive aid from countries which are already underway to create that technology. However, by joining the network creates disadvantage as it shares certain data in the process this contributed towards national security concerns. With the uncertainty surrounding security would require a reassessment. For example, with the 5G technology, based works through software and digital routers which are harder to locate activities, thereby creating becoming exposed to cybersecurity threat.

However, India may suffer from slow 5G technological growth and it would be challenging for domestic companies and countries to adjust with the security paradigm involving its use.[11]

T11 and its future

While the emergence of the AI technology has led to a new arms race, where, Information flows rapidly using the 5G network. Thus, in the telecommunication sector, T-11 countries hold the potential to form norms based system for information exchange, this could serve as the basis for the future development of the 6G technology. Since USA and China were one of the few countries ahead in developing the AI technology, now through T 11 co-operation India and other potential member countries could serve to expand membership and co-operate on similar values


[1]SD Pradhan (August 13,2020) Security Vulnerability of 5G network [2] Times of India (September 8, 2020)India, USA Israel collaborating in 5G tech Official [3] Prabhjote Gill (October 9, 2019) India is as prepared as US or Australia to welcome the 5G era [4] Pranab Dhai Samanta (July 2, 2019) View: India has to forge partnership in developing 5G technology. Can India risk it with China [5] Economic Times (September 18,2019) Framing policy data privacy, key challenges ahead of 5G rollout Manoj Sinha [6] SD Pradhan (August 13, 2020) Security Vulnerability of 5G need to build-in protection, efficient governance of data protection and efficient cyber security strategy [7] Sanjay Kapoor and Ayoon Banerjee (February 20, 2020) How is 5G technology critically important to India’s dream [8] Ibid [9] Madhulika Srikumar (April 3, 2018) Sharing Data across border [10] Rajender Singh Bhadari (October 1, 2019) It’s time for 5G ready data centers. [11] Prabhjote Gill (October 9, 2019) India is as prepared for US or Australia to welcome the 5G era. © AbhiGlobal Legal Research & Media LLP

Any views discussed in the content published by Global Law Assembly ( are not in any way endorsed by and are representative of the views of AbhiGlobal Legal Research & Media LLP & its members.